Carbon Sequestration is the process of capturing and storing carbon compounds in a carbon pool such as carbon dioxide for the betterment of the atmosphere. As we know, carbon and its substitutes have a toxic effect on the atmosphere which causes global warming. Carbon Sequestration has been introduced to reduce carbon toxicity in the environment. It is a naturally occurring process but can also be done artificially. This process has shown great results in reducing human ‘carbon footprints’. To understand Carbon Sequestration, first, it is important to know about Carbon and its compounds which are creating climate change.
Carbon and Its Compounds
Carbon is the building block of many biological molecules, and life might never have existed without it. Carbon covers 0.025% of the Earth’s crust. It exists on Earth in different forms such as Coal, Graphite, and Diamond. It is present in different conditions solid and gaseous. For example, when it combines with oxygen, it forms carbon dioxide and Carbon monoxide.
Carbon dioxide is the compound of carbon which is the main problem as it has heat-trapping properties. CO2 is present in the atmosphere freely, it is produced by nature (plants) and human activities. For example, the gases released from the factories have mainly CO2 which traps the heat ultimately resulting in climate warming. The buildup of Carbon dioxide and other greenhouse gases causes global warming by destroying the ozone layer.
To control this, scientists have suggested Carbon Sequestration.
Methods Of Carbon Sequestration
There are two main types of Carbon Sequestration:
Biological Sequestration is the process of storing carbon and its compounds mainly Carbon dioxide in a natural way such as through vegetation and oceans.
Oceans annually absorb 25% of the Carbon dioxide. The 2 fluxes are produced by the ocean when it absorbs carbon dioxide which is:
Positive Atmospheric Flux; is when the ocean absorbs carbon dioxide from the ocean itself as the organisms in the ocean also produce CO2.
Negative Atmospheric Flux; is when the ocean absorbs carbon dioxide from the outside.
These fluxes are as inhaling and exhaling and an overall effect is produced.
Soil also stores carbon and its compounds in the form of carbonates mainly. When plants undergo photosynthesis, the Carbon is sequestered in the soil by plants automatically. This stored form is known as Soil Organic Carbon.
Forest is an area that is all about grassland and woodland. The plants, when die, falls on the ground and the CO2 stored in it is either released into the atmosphere or is stored in the soil as SOC.
It is the method of storing carbon and its compounds in geological underground formations such as Rocks. Firstly, the carbon and its compounds are turned into a liquid form and are then injected into rocks. Later, this Carbon is used as fuel, and in the petroleum field through tertiary recovery which is the process of getting oil from geological sources, the carbon is injected so that the viscosity of oil decreases and makes the flow easier.
Is Carbon Sequestration Good?
Yes, it is important in today’s world and is the best. Due to human activities, 45% of the CO2 gas is accumulated in the atmosphere. This accumulation is the main cause of global warming and climate change. Carbon Sequestration has reduced it to a greater extent. Carbon sequestration is also good for the woodlands and soil. When the fossils are converted into carbon, it comes into use in different fields such as the petroleum industry. Scientists are working further to enhance the process of carbon sequestration.
Carbon Sequestration is the process of storing Carbon and its compounds for the better use and prevention of global warming. It is a natural process and can also be done artificially. There are two main methods of Carbon Sequestration which Biological Carbon Sequestration and Geological Carbon Sequestration. Scientists are further working on it to make it more applicable.